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Left : Diagram of Japanese Form: Mechanism of passive and controlled pendulum-type tilting, Right : Diagram of European Form: Mechanism of active and forced inclined link-type tiltingm

Comparison between the Japanese and European system
 Japanese FormEuropean Form
Car body tilt angle±5°max±8°
Actuation deviceAir CylinderHydraulic or Electrical actuator
Control System Diagram of Control System of Japanese Form Diagram of Control System of European Forme
Tilting Mechanism Diagram of Tilting Mechanism of Japanese Form Diagram of Tilting Mechanism of European Form
GaugeNarrow (1,067mm)Standard (1,435mm)